Friday, December 23, 2016

Hydrogen Peroxide as a new energy storage.

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can store energy in the form of chemical energy, similar to hydrogen. However, H2O2 has the same problem that hydrogen has — that is, hydrogen peroxide does not exist naturally in large pools like crude oil. H2O2 is not a source of energy like oil; we can't go out and explore for it or drill for it. Hydrogen peroxide is manufactured by a process that consumes energy, and/or other chemical resources.

Hydrogen peroxide, when used to produce energy, creates only pure water and oxygen as a by-product, so it is considered a clean energy like hydrogen. However, unlike hydrogen, H2O2 exists in liquid form at room temperature, so it can be easily stored and transported. Hydrogen peroxide has been around for a long time, so there is a long history of industrial handling and storage. Scientists are familiar with hydrogen peroxide.

Recent advances in electrochemistry have demonstrated the feasibility of producing hydrogen peroxide by the electrochemical reaction of oxygen and hydrogen in a fuel cell. The new process could significantly reduce the cost of producing hydrogen peroxide and provide an opportunity to make the H2O2 from hydrogen and oxygen generated locally with renewable resources.
Patent# 6,685,818 Process for the electrochemical preparation of hydrogen peroxide - February 3, 2004

One of the problems Engineers must solve when designing a process for making hydrogen peroxide is the high loss of energy. The typical energy conversion efficiency is less than 50% because the formation of H2O2 produces heat as a by-product.

Thursday, December 22, 2016

Vortex Bladeless: a wind generator without blades Wind energy without blades

Wednesday, September 16, 2015

Pervaporation for desalinization


Pervaporation (or pervaporative separation) is a processing method for the separation of mixtures of liquids by partial vaporization through a non-porous or porous membrane.

Helmy El-Zanfaly, a professor of water contamination at Egypt’s National Research Centre
Developed by a team of researchers at Alexandria University in Egypt, the procedure uses a desalination technique called pervaporation to remove the salt from sea water and make it drinkable. Specially made synthetic membranes are used to filter out large salt particles and impurities so they can be evaporated away, and then the rest is heated up, vapourised, and condensed back into clean water.

New technology converts sea water into drinking water in minutes

Desalination of simulated seawater by purge-air pervaporation using an innovative fabricated membrane

Wednesday, August 19, 2015

Quadruple lithium-ion battery lifespan

Forgetful scientists accidentally quadruple lithium-ion battery lifespan

"Achieving the new outer coating required a set time of soaking. The accident occurred when Wang and Li forgot to remove one batch of the nanoparticles from the soaking process. That batch ended up soaking for several hours longer than intended with the result being the sulfuric acid and titanium oxysulfate mix leaked into the 50nm nanoparticles and dissolved some of the aluminum inside. What this left was a nanoparticle with a 4nm outer shell of titanium hydroxide and an inner 30nm "yolk" of aluminum.

Rather than discarding this forgotten batch, they decided to test it by building batteries using these particles. It turns out they have potentially solved the problem of using aluminum for the anodes in the battery. The extra long soak meant the anodes did not expand and contract, in fact they created a battery that over 500 charge/discharge cycles retained up to four-times the capacity of the equivalent graphite anode batteries. These batteries last considerably longer in terms of usable lifespan and, according to MIT, can hold up to three-times the energy."